In those clear circumstances, this is first degree murder. By statute, many states consider a killing in which there is torture, movement of the person before the killing kidnapping or the death of a police officer or prison guard, or it was as an incident to another crime as during a hold up or rape, to be first degree murder, with or without premeditation and with malice presumed. Second degree murder is such a killing without premeditation, as in the heat of passion or in a sudden quarrel or fight. Malice in second degree murder may be implied from a death due to the reckless lack of concern for the life of others such as firing a gun into a crowd or bashing someone with any deadly weapon. Depending on the circumstances and state laws, murder in the first or second degree may be chargeable to a person who did not actually kill, but was involved in a crime with a partner who actually did the killing or someone died as the result of the crime. Example: In a liquor store stick up in which the clerk shoots back at the hold up man and kills a bystander, the armed robber can be convicted of at least second degree murder. A charge of murder requires that the victim must die within a year of the attack. Death of an unborn child who is "quick" fetus is moving can be murder, provided there was premeditation, malice and no legal authority. Thus, abortion is not murder under the law. Example: Jack Violent shoots his pregnant girlfriend, killing the fetus. Manslaughter, both voluntary and involuntary, lacks the element of malice aforethought. Other states, like West Virginia, place responsibility on the person the check is written to. Often, bank tellers don't even look at the date while handling checks. While it's best to avoid postdating checks so you don't run the risk of getting hit with bounced check fees, you can contact the bank with a written or verbal request to hold the check until the future date. Annotated law reports provide essays that analyze and discuss particular points of law. They focus on narrow legal issues rather than general points of law. The articles analyze and describe cases from every jurisdiction that have taken a position on the topic covered.
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Judicial reform is often done as a part of wider reform of the country's political system or a legal reform.